A word square is a special type of acrostic. It consists of a set of words written out in a square grid, such that the same words can be read both horizontally and vertically. The number of words, which is equal to the number of letters in each word, is known as the "order" of the square. For example, this is an order 5 square:. A popular puzzle dating well into ancient times, the word square is sometimes compared to the magic squarethough apart from the fact that both use square grids there is no real connection between the two.
The Sator Square is a famous word square in Latin. Its canonical form reads as follows. In addition to satisfying the basic properties of word squares, the Sator Square spread widely due to several other attributes: it is palindromic ; it can be read as a sentence of obscure meaning; and additional meaning such as reference to the Christian Paternoster prayer can be derived from its letters.
However, the word "Arepo" appears nowhere else in Latin literature; most of those who have studied the Sator Square agree that it is to be taken as a proper name, either an adaptation of a non-Latin word or, more likely, a name invented specifically for this sentence. If the "words" in a word square need not be true words, arbitrarily large squares of pronounceable combinations can be constructed. An English edition appeared in This is square 7 of Chapter IX of the Third Book, which is full of incomplete and complete "squares".
No source or explanation is given for any of the "words", so this square does not meet the modern standards for legitimate word squares. Modern research indicates that a square would be essentially impossible to construct from indexed words and phrases, even using a large number of languages.
However, equally large English-language squares consisting of arbitrary phrases containing dictionary words are relatively easy to construct; they too are not considered true word squares, but they have been published in The Enigma and other puzzle magazines as "Something Different" squares.
A specimen of the order-six square or 6-square was first published in English in ; the 7-square in ; the 8-square in ; and the 9-square in The following is one of several "perfect" nine-squares all words in major dictionaries, uncapitalized, and unpunctuated : . A square is naturally much harder to find, and a "perfect" square has been hunted since Sincesquares have been constructed from reduplicated words and phrases like "Alala! Each such square contains five words appearing twice, which in effect constitutes four identical 5-squares.
Darryl Francis and Dmitri Borgmann succeeded in using near-tautonyms second- and third-order reduplication to employ seven different entries by pairing " orangutang " with "urangutang" and "ranga-ranga" with "tanga-tanga", as follows: . However, "word researchers have always regarded the tautonymic ten-square as an unsatisfactory solution to the problem. InFrank Rubin produced an incomplete ten-square containing two nonsense phrases at the top and eight dictionary words.
From the s, Jeff Grant had a long history of producing well-built squares; concentrating on the ten-square from tohe produced the first three traditional ten-squares by relying on reasonable coinages such as "Sol Springs" various extant people named Sol Spring and "ses tunnels" French for "its tunnels". His continuing work produced one of the best of this genre, making use of "impolarity" found on the Internet and the plural of "Tony Nader" found in the white pagesas well as words verified in more traditional references:.
By combining common first and last names and verifying the results in white-pages listings, Steve Root of Westboro, Massachusettswas able to document the existence of all ten names below total number of people found is listed after each line :. AroundRex Gooch of Letchworth, Englandanalyzed available wordlists and computing requirements and compiled one or two hundred specialized dictionaries and indexes to provide a reasonably strong vocabulary.
In Word Ways in August and Novemberhe published several squares found in this wordlist. The square below has been held by some word square experts as essentially solving the square problem Daily MailThe Timeswhile others anticipate higher-quality squares in the future. There are a few "imperfections": " Echeneidae " is capitalized, "Dioumabana" and "Adaletabat" are places in Turkey and Guinea respectivelyand "nature-name" is hyphenated.
Many new large word squares and new species [ clarification needed ] have arisen recently. However, modern combinatorics has demonstrated why the square has taken so long to find, and why squares are extremely unlikely to be constructible using English words even including transliterated place names.Toggle navigation All Scrabble Words.
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Words that Start with v.We said fine, but she ended up not returning until four hours later. We tried holding her. She just kept crying. There is no national standard for issuing licenses.
Some plumbers are licensed by the state, others by the counties they work in. Check with your local city hall or chamber of commerce. They should be able to direct you to the appropriate source for a list of licensed plumbers in your area. They come and go. Instead, look for a plumber who is well-established in your community.
Check the Better Business Bureau and read customer reviews at sites such as HomeAdvisor, Angie's List, or Citysearch. Local contractors or plumbing fixture stores can also refer you to a quality plumber, according to Grady Daniel, who owns a plumbing company in Austin, Texas. A trusted plumber that consistently delivers quality service does not remain a secret for very long.
Estimates for an average-sized job should be within a few hundred dollars. Be suspicious of anything that is substantially lower or double the price of the rest, and watch out for hidden fees, like charges for travel expenses. They could be signs of a home improvement scam. A good plumber will not nickel and dime you like this, and many of us will offer free estimates.
Get a clueand an electrician. By staying smart and doing these things all smart homeowners do once a year, you won't need to call me as often. We may be tiny buggers (about the shape and size of an apple seed), but our presence elicits a massive case of the heebie jeebies.
Home fires can happen quickly, devastating lives and property, but unlike other disasters, most home fires can be prevented.Researchers concluded that this "personalization" aspect was what triggered the increased tips.
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Good to know, because it means that it's applicable to businesses outside of restaurants. From Buyers to Brand Supporters First impressions go a long way. Some of my favorite examples: Free product training and support (includes things like access to a private forum) Free widget or guide that is product related (and not mentioned on the sales page) First time buyer bonus (can literally be anything semi-related) The takeaway is that appreciation doesn't have to be a grand gesture.
With a bit of preparation before you set off, there's no reason why your holiday shouldn't be hassle-free. Work out exactly which foods you can and can't eat.
Make sure that you have packed some essential gluten-free foods for the first few days of your holiday. Then you don't have to worry about finding a shop straight away. Bread, biscuits and other snacks are great for when you're travelling. Note: To avoid any risk of contamination, you should only pack bread that does not need to be pre-baked.
Before you set off, get in touch with the coeliac association in the country where you're travelling. If you're flying or going on a cruise, make sure you enquire about gluten-free meal options when booking. Some travel companies are already offering a gluten-free alternative. Learn from the experiences of others.
Before you travel, check out the ratings and comments for local eating establishments, so that you can be relatively confident about your restaurant choices. Always call the restaurant before you set out to make sure that they are serving gluten-free meals that day.
If possible, try and speak to the chef yourself, so that you can explain the situation in person. You can use the card provided to help you explain your requirements and help the chef help you.
This is how you order your gluten-free meal in various languagesAre holidays just around the corner and are you going to a far away place. Then the anticipation must be building. But how do you explain to the cook or the waiter in the hotel or restaurant in Turkish that your meal must be gluten-free. It's a tough one. But the German Coeliac Society (DGZ) has a good tip for you that they have very kindly shared with us: To get the best from the cook - an explanation of coeliac condition printed out in various languages.
This is what dining should be like. IT00605750215, CCIAA BZ 88727, Cap. The content of the tests relates directly to the progression of skills in the Scope and Sequence Chart. Synthetic Phonics Scope and Sequence Chart modelled on the Jolly Phonics Program and Supporting Tests for Monitoring Achievement and Spread-sheets for Record-keeping. If the short vowel does not sound right, try the long one.Tanya, United States Highlights of Scotland, August 2016 Tour director Brian Collie was amazing.
Patricia, United Kingdom Complete Iceland, July 2016 The accommodations were all very clean and the beds in all of them were very comfortable.
Herman and Cheryl, United States Iceland Full Circle, July 2016 This was the first time I have used a travel company to plan and book our vacation.
Nancy and Mark, United States Hidden Gems of Iceland, July 2016 A year ago, we had used Nordic to book a trip to Iceland. Naomi, United States Scenic Fjords of Norway, July 2016 From the start, we upgraded from comfort to quality accommodations and were extremely satisfied with all our hotels, their wonderful breakfasts and their friendly service providers.
I liked your flexibility in making modifications to existing tours, your willingness to reserve a car and your knowledge of local train and bus schedules. Amanda, United States The Natural Wonders of Iceland, July 2016 Our tour guides we awesome. The lady that did our city tour was well informed and kept the kids entertained. After that tour, I was looking for street art whenever we walked somewhere. Our tour guide that we had for the golden city tour was well versed and loved her job.
Throughout the whole experience, I never had a bad customer service experience and welcomed by all. We were a bit bummed that it snowed the second day, but that only last a little bit. Since moving to the UK the kids haven't seen snow, so it was fun to have a snowball fight. Thanks for everything, the trip was grand. Renee, United States The Natural Wonders of Iceland, July 2016 Anita was great.
She set up our itinerary and had things lined up and answered all my questions promptly and efficiently. Tour guide was awesome. I cannot praise her highly enough. She was highly professional, and still warm, personable, friendly, incredibly knowledgeable and handled a diverse group beautifully. The greenhouse was fascinating. And, I thought the addition of a few hours at a local farmer's home was the icing on the cake.
We got to meet a farmer and his family and get a sense of what life is like for them. I was sorry to leave and want to come back. Alan, United Kingdom Majestic Highlights of Norway, July 2016 Despite the weather this was a thoroughly enjoyable holiday.
Many thanks to Petra for her excellent organisation and responding quickly to our specific requirements. Michael, United States South and West in Detail, July 2016 Difficult to pick out one thing, as everything was flawless. The hotels were excellent, the car rental was very smooth. The trip planner was very well prepared and the confirmation tickets (which I actually didn't need most of the time as the hotels and drivers expected us) were excellent. Meals were uniformly good.
Can't think of anything else to say.For detailed instructions, here's how to set up a VPN on an iOS device and on Android. There are many other VPN services available, including paid and free options. It's worth doing your research to work out which is best for your needs, especially if you are a heavy-duty user.
Like the old saying goes, check for the lock in your browser to make sure it's secure. One way you can force your browser to use HTTPS is through an extension, such as HTTPS Everywhere. This is available for Chrome, Firefox, Firefox for Android, and Opera. It's important to note that HTTPS Everywhere works by activating encryption on all supported parts of the website. As outlined in its FAQ:It's time to start forming some good patching habits. Keep your browser and internet-connected devices up to date with the latest versions, but make sure to do this on a trusted home or work network -- not on public Wi-Fi.
There have been instances of travelers being caught off guard when connecting to public or hotel Wi-Fi networks when their device prompts them to update a software package.
If accepted by the user, malware was installed on the machine. Also, if you're on a mobile device, don't assume that your apps are automatically secure or using HTTPS. Unless outlined by the app developer, it's safest to presume that the app is not conducting a secure transaction.
In this case, you should use your browser to log on to the service, and check for a HTTPS connection in the status bar. It's good practice to enable two-factor authentication on services that support it, such as Gmail, Twitter and Facebook. This way, even if someone does manage to sniff out your password when on public Wi-Fi, you have an added layer of protection.
On the topic of passwords, try not to use the same password across multiple services. There are plenty of password managers available to make your life easier -- here are six of our favorites. Once you are all done with your Web browsing, make sure to log off any services you were signed into. Then, tell your device to forget the network.
This means that your phone or PC won't automatically connect again to the network if you're in range. Click on "Wireless Properties" and then uncheck "Connect automatically when this network is in range. Then uncheck "Remember networks this computer has joined.You may take early prices or show prices in straight forecasts when available, in a fixed price forecast.
Where a client selects combination forecasts A B C and stakes for 6 bets this will be settled as 6 straight forecasts as follows:Should any forecast contain a non-runner then the total stake will be placed to Win on the other selection.
In fixed price forecasts the remaining selection will be settled at SP. In races where a horse finishes alone and no forecast dividend is returned then all forecast bets nominating that horse to finish first will be settled as a Win single at SP on the winning horse.
All other forecast bets in the race are lost. In the event of two or more horses dead-heating for first or second place then separate dividends will be declared and paid to each qualifying forecast. In fixed price forecasts the full odds will be paid with the stake split according to the number of horses which dead-heat.
Tricast BettingYou may take early prices or show prices in straight Tricasts when available, in a fixed price Tricast. This is available on all horse races of 8 or more runners. However, if no computer Tricast dividend is declared (e.A Day in the Life of a Harvard Computer Science Student
The following applies to both Tricasts and fixed price Tricasts: if one selection is a non-runner then the bet will be settled as a straight forecast at the computer forecast dividend. If there are two non-runners then the bet will be settled as an SP single on the remaining selection.
In the event of two or more horses dead-heating for first, second or third place then separate dividends will be declared and paid to each qualifying tricast. In fixed price tricasts the full odds will be paid with the stake split according to the number of horses which dead-heat. Tricasts are accepted for singles only.
Rule 4 (Deductions) will apply. ReservesIn races with reserves, any bets taken prior to a reserve horse being declared to run and if the reserve was not priced up at the time the bet was placed, then any such bets will be settled on the result 'without the reserve runner(s)'.
Each way bets settled on the result "without the reserve runner(s)" will be based on the number of runners, excluding reserves, that start the race. In races where reserves are priced but do not run, no Rule 4 (Deductions) will be applicable.
Withdrawals Other Than AntePostWhere a horse is withdrawn before coming under starter's orders, or is officially deemed by the starter to have taken no part in the race, then stakes will be returned on the withdrawn horse and winning bets will be subject to deductions in accordance with Rule 4 (Deductions). Should a horse be withdrawn and a new market formed then any bets laid at show prices prior to the new show will be subject to the above deductions. In the event of a further withdrawal after the market has been reformed then bets placed at show prices in the original market will be subject to a further deduction based on the price of the withdrawn horse in the original market.
Bets placed in the new market will be subject to a deduction based on the current price. The above scale will also apply in the case of non-runners in early price races and will be used for other events where we specifically advertise that deductions in line with Rule 4 (Deductions) will apply. ReRunsIn the event of a false start, etc. Returns on the remaining runners subject to Rule 4 (Deductions). The number of runners taking part in the rerun governs Place terms.
Carré magique (lettres)
Walkovers and Void Horse RacesWalkovers and void races count as races but any horse so involved will be treated as a non-runner for settlement purposes. Normal place terms will apply for Each-way betting.
In the event of a game being decided by a penalty shootout, then one goal will be added to the winning team's score and the game total for settlement purposes. In 2-Way markets Push rules apply. Highest Scoring Period - If 2 or more periods have the same score, Tie will be settled as the winner.